Oracle Spatial and Graph, formerly Oracle Spatial, forms a separately-licensed option component of the Oracle Database. The spatial features in Oracle Spatial and Graph aid users in managing geographic and location-data in a native type within an Oracle database, potentially supporting a wide range of applications — from automated mapping/facilities-management and geographic information systems (GIS), to wireless location services and location-enabled e-business. The graph features in Oracle Spatial and Graph include Network Data Model (NDM) graphs used in traditional network applications in major transportation, telcos, utilities and energy organizations and RDF semantic graphs used in social networks and social interactions and in linking disparate data sets to address requirements from the research, health sciences, finance, media and intelligence communities.
Oracle Spatial and Graph provides a SQL schema (named by default "MDSYS", where "MD" stands for "Multi Dimensional") and functions that facilitate the storage, retrieval, update, and query of collections of spatial features in an Oracle database. Oracle Spatial consists of:
- A schema that prescribes the storage, syntax, and semantics of supported geometric data types.
- A spatial indexing system.
- Operators, functions, and procedures for performing area-of-interest queries, spatial join queries, and other spatial analysis operations.
- Functions and procedures for utility and tuning operations.
- A topology data model for working with data about nodes, edges, and faces in a topology.
- A network data model for representing capabilities or objects (modeled as nodes and links) in a network.
- A GeoRaster feature to store, index, query, analyze, and deliver GeoRaster data (raster image and gridded data and its associated metadata).
- Data types and operators for 3-Dimensional objects including Triangulated Irregular Networks (TINs), Point Clouds and LiDAR data sets.
- A Geocoder to convert locations and addresses data into formal geographic coordinates.
- A Routing engine to create routes based on commercial and publicly available street network data.
- OpenGeospatial Consortium compliant Web Services.
The spatial component of a spatial feature consists of the geometric representation of its shape in some coordinate space — referred to as its "geometry".
The RDF Semantic Graph features in Oracle Spatial and Graph include Semantic Database features including an RDF triple store, ontology management, inferencing, the Web Ontology Language (OWL), and SPARQL query language.